Competitors are divided into three main categories: sit-ski, standing and visually impaired. Each category is then divided into classes based on functional ability resulting from the degree and type of disability. Each class is scored based on a percentage factor relative to the strongest class in the category. The competitor’s actual race time is adjusted, and the fastest adjusted time is the winner.
A guide skis ahead of the competitor alerting them vocally or over a radio of all corners, inclines, declines or other course alterations. In the biathlon events, an auditory system is used to guide the competitor toward the target.
This category includes athletes with lower-extremity disabilities. In Alpine skiing, a mono-ski is used. In Nordic skiing, a sledge is used. A sledge is a specially designed chair attached to a pair of skis.
Most competitors have a limb disability, such as an amputation below or above the knee or elbow.